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Recent advances in the multitarget-directed ligands approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

AuthorsLeón, Rafael; Garcia, Antonio G.; Marco-Contelles, José
oxidative stress
metal chelators
BACE-1 inhibitors
GSK-3β inhibitors
CDK5 inhibitors
CK-1 inhibitors
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Antioxidant drugs
Ca2+ overload
Alzheimer's disease
multitarget drugs
dual AChE inhibitors
AChE peripheral anionic site
Amyloid–β antiaggregating agents
voltage-dependent calcium channels
Ca2+ dyshomeostasis
multiactive compounds
Issue Date2013
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
CitationMedicinal Research Reviews 33: 139-189 (2013)
AbstractWith 27 million cases worldwide documented in 2006, Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes an overwhelming health, social, economic, and political problem to nations. Unless a new medicine capable to delay disease progression is found, the number of cases will reach 107 million in 2050. So far, the therapeutic paradigm one-compound-one-target has failed. This could be due to the multiple pathogenic mechanisms involved in AD including amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation to form plaques, τ hyperphosphorylation to disrupt microtubule to form neurofibrillary tangles, calcium imbalance, enhanced oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial function, apoptotic neuronal death, and deterioration of synaptic transmission, particularly at cholinergic neurons. Approximately 100 compounds are presently been investigated directed to single targets, namely inhibitors of β and γ secretase, vaccines or antibodies that clear Aβ, metal chelators to inhibit Aβ aggregation, blockers of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, enhancers of mitochondrial function, antioxidants, modulators of calcium-permeable channels such as voltage-dependent calcium channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors for glutamate, or enhancers of cholinergic neurotransmission such as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase. In view of this complex pathogenic mechanisms, and the successful treatment of chronic diseases such as HIV or cancer, with multiple drugs having complementary mechanisms of action, the concern is growing that AD could better be treated with a single compound targeting two or more of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to neuronal death. This review summarizes the current therapeutic strategies based on the paradigm one-compound-various targets to treat AD. A treatment that delays disease onset and/or progression by 5 years could halve the number of people requiring institutionalization and/or dying from AD.
Identifiersissn: 0198-6325
e-issn: 1098-1128
Appears in Collections:(IQOG) Artículos
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