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Trihalomethane occurrence in chlorinated reclaimed water at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in NE Spain

AutorMatamoros, Víctor; Mujeriego, Rafael; Bayona Termens, Josep María
Palabras claveDBPs
Effluent chlorination
UV disinfection
Reclaimed water
Secondary effluent
Tertiary effluent
THM formation
Fecha de publicación1-may-2007
CitaciónWater Research 41(15): 3337-3344 (2007)
ResumenTotal trihalomethane (TTHM) concentrations were determined in three chlorinated effluents (i.e. secondary and tertiary) from full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in NE Spain over a 2-year monitoring period (May 2003–February 2005). Low TTHM concentrations (2-30 μg L-1), according to international standards for drinking water (80-150 μg L-1), were obtained in all samples analysed. The effects of (a) ammonia nitrogen and bromide concentrations, (b) UV light exposure, (c) tank storage, and (d) water temperature were evaluated. Two chlorination strategies were adopted: low chlorine dosages (2-5 mgCl2 L-1) and a high-chlorine dosage (16 mgCl2 L-1). The effects of storing chlorinated reclaimed water and of UV light exposure before chlorination were also evaluated. Samples collected over the 2-year monitoring period offered the possibility to assess the numerous variables affecting THM formation. A statistical evaluation of Platja d’Aro WWTP data set shows a low TTHM formation in the presence of high ammonia nitrogen concentration (p<0.05). That result can be attributed to the formation of chloramines by reaction with added chlorine, at doses below breakpoint chlorination. An increase in TTHM concentration in the presence of bromide (0-1 mg L-1) was also recorded (p<0.05). In contrast to published reports, TOC had a negative effect on TTHM formation. COD and turbidity had no statistical significance on TTHM formation. As expected, chlorination promoted TTHM formation in the three water reclamation plants monitored. Nevertheless, no statistical difference was observed when chlorinated effluents were kept in storage tanks. Exposure to UV light did not affect either formation or removal of TTHM. The relative production of TTHM during warm and cold seasons was also evaluated. TTHM production decreased with higher temperatures, but that could be attributed to the increase of ammonia nitrogen concentration observed during the warm summer seasons.
Descripción8 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables.-- PMID: 17585988 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Aug 2007.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.04.021
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