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The interplay among human, biotic and abiotic factors explains quick Phytophthora cinnamomi spreading and tree decline in a Mediterranean Biosphere Reserve

AutorGarcía, Luis V. ; De Vita, Paolo; Serrano, María S. ; Ramo, Cristina ; Cara García, Juan S. ; Écija, M. R.; Sánchez Hernández, Mª Esperanza
Fecha de publicaciónnov-2014
EditorInternational Union of Forest Research Organizations
Citación7th Meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations IUFRO Working Party 7‐02‐09 Phytophthora in Forests & Natural Ecosystems (2014)
ResumenAllien invasion is one of the main threats to biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.In this work we analyse a case study in a Biosphere Reserve (Doñana National Park), located at SW Spain, which includes both aquatic and terrestrial endangered ecosystems. We monitored soil for Phytophthora cinnamomi presence under both symptomatic and asymptomatic centenarian oaks along 7 years (2008-2014). Before 2008 there were no reports about the pathogen. In 2008/09 several infected trees were detected in an area recently aforested with seedlings grown in uncertified nurseries. An unusual climate event occured in 2010: late winter/early spring rainfall rates exceeded all previous records, extending the period with flooding/high soil moisture towards warmer months. Infestation frequency increased from ~20% to >70% of the surveyed trees. In 2014, the isolation frequency in soil raised to 99,7%. Spore densities in the infested soils quickly increased and, in 2013, it exceeded on average the infection threshold experimentally determined. On the other hand, pathogen dissemination and root infection have complex interactions with soil chemistry. Soil changes caused by tree nesting wading bird drops affected to different stages of the pathogen cycle in a different way. For example, soft levels of soil contamination stimulated both sporangial production and chlamidospore germination, while high contamination levels inhibited both processes, but stimulated chlamidospore production. Root infection was stimulated by soil contamination, although zoospore production was not influenced. Since nesting birds occupy a significant fraction of the oaks, they will probably have a significant effect on pathogen progression. Unfortunately, neither individual (trunk injection based) treatments for the big centenarian oaks, nor prohibition of afforestation with uncertified seedlings have been adopted by managers, despite the recommendations of an international panel of experts. Therefore, the inaction of forest protection authorities also results as an important factor of the ecological consequences derived from P. cinammomi expansion.
DescripciónComunicación oral presentada en el 7th Meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations IUFRO Working Party 7‐02‐09 Phytophthora in Forests & Natural Ecosystems
Versión del editorhttp://www.iufrophytophthora2014.org/downloads/proceedings.pdf
Aparece en las colecciones: (IRNAS) Comunicaciones congresos
(EBD) Comunicaciones congresos
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