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Combining stable isotope (δ13C) of trace gases and aerobiological data to monitor the entry and dispersion of microorganisms in caves

AuthorsGarcía Antón, Elena ; Cuezva, Soledad ; Jurado, Valme ; Porca, Estefanía ; Miller, A. Z. ; Fernández Cortés, Ángel ; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo ; Sánchez Moral, Sergio
Issue Date2014
PublisherKluwer Academic Publishers
CitationEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research 21: 473- 484 (2014)
AbstractAltamira Cave (north of Spain) contains one of the world's most prominent Paleolithic rock art paintings, which are threatened by a massive microbial colonization of ceiling and walls. Previous studies revealed that exchange rates between the cave and the external atmosphere through the entrance door play a decisive role in the entry and transport of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) and nutrients to the interior of the cave. A spatial-distributed sampling and measurement of carrier (CO2) and trace (CH4) gases and isotopic signal of CO 2 (δ13C) inside the cave supports the existence of a second connection (active gas exchange processes) with the external atmosphere at or near the Well Hall, the inner-most and deepest area of the cave. A parallel aerobiological study also showed that, in addition to the entrance door, there is another connection with the external atmosphere, which favors the transport and increases microorganism concentrations in the Well Hall. This double approach provides a more complete knowledge on cave ventilation and revealed the existence of unknown passageways in the cave, a fact that should be taken into account in future cave management.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1007/s11356-013-1915-3
issn: 0944-1344
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