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Commercial products for Artemia nauplii enrichment are not equivalent for lipid accumulation, growth and development in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae

AuthorsBoglino, Anaïs; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan B. ; Darias, M. J. ; Özcan, Filiz; Estévez, Alicia; Gisbert, Enric
Fatty acids
Fat accumulation
Senegalese sole
Issue DateApr-2011
CitationV Workshop The cultivation of the Soles (2011)
AbstractFirst feeding nutrition in marine fish larvae is one of the most important factors influencing the success of larval rearing. Dietary lipids are particularly important for normal growth and larval development, since they represent the main energy source in developing fish larvae and a source of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) indispensable for building new cellular structures and developing organs during morphogenesis. Marine fish larvae are dependent on dietary lipid intakes to get essential HUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA), since they are unable to synthesize these FA from their precursors 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6. The important morphological and physiological changes occurring during the larval development noticeably affect dietary lipid utilization by larvae and make them very susceptible to dietary lipid form and composition. The quality of the diet ingested by larvae in terms of lipid content and composition is reflected by the structural organization of target tissues/ organs; the intestine (digestion and absorption), the vascular system (transport in the form of VLDL or chylomicrons) and liver and muscular tissues (metabolism and storage). When dietary lipids and HUFAs, particularly essential fatty acids (EFAs), are provided to the fish larvae in insufficient/excessive amounts or inadequate form, they can become harmful inducing steatosis, delayed growth, increased mortality, delayed maturation of the digestive tract and bone ossification, apparition of skeletal deformities or others anatomical alterations and pigmentary disorders. Nowadays, many enriching products used to improve live prey nutritional value are commercially available, but they present considerable differences in their physical appearances (emulsions, pastes, spray-dried powders), ingredients (fish oils, vegetal oils, single-cell algal and fungal heterotrophic or phototrophic organisms) and lipid compositions (lipid classes, absolute and relative amounts of saturated fatty acids, MUFAs, HUFAs (n-3 and n-6), EFAs (DHA, EPA, and ARA)). Up to now, no study has been conducted to compare the effect of these different enriching products on lipid absorption, transport, utilization and storage in fish larvae. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine whether any of these products was more suitable for Senegalese sole larval development and to test their influence on lipid accumulation in intestine, liver and trunk muscle by analyzing histological sections. A structural alteration of the histomorphological organization of these organs can provide useful information about the quality of the diet, the metabolism, and the nutritional condition of the larvae. Senegalese sole larvae were fed from 8 to 38 days post hatching (dph) with Artemia nauplii previously enriched with the following six commercial enrichments: Easy Selco© (INVE), Easy Selco© (INVE) half diluted with olive oil, Multigain© ( BioMar ), Red Pepper© ( Bernaqua ), Aquagrow Gold© ( ABN ) and Aquagrow DHA© (ABN). At the end of the experiment, larvae fed Artemia enriched with Aquagrow Gold presented significant higher growth and more advanced intestinal maturation and ossification than larvae fed Artemia enriched with Easy Selco. Lipid accumulation in the different studied tissues evolved differentially among dietary treatments and throughout larval development, revealing that larvae modified lipid utilization in function of the diet they ingested. Larvae from the Easy Selco group showed signs of steatosis in liver and muscle. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HUFAs and EFAs profiles.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en el V Workshop The cultivation of the Soles, celebrado en Faro (Portugal) del 5 al 7 de abril de 2011.
Appears in Collections:(ICMAN) Comunicaciones congresos
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