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Source and impact of lead contamination on δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

AutorCompany, R.; Blasco, Julián ; Bebianno, Maria João
Fecha de publicación17-ene-2011
CitaciónAquatic Toxicology 101(1): 146-154 (2011)
ResumenCoastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas.The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz.Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagón, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues.The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50±1.09μgg-1 Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95±0.10μgg-1 Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38μgg-1 Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD=-0.36[Pb]+0.79; r=0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD=2.48e-8.3[Pb]; r=0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in marine bivalve species with different feeding habits. Lead isotope data showed significant seasonal and spatial changes in bivalve isotopic composition reflecting seasonal and geographic differences in bioaccumulation. Within the study area, Pb can be modelled as a mixing between geogenic Pb and mine-related, discharges of Pb from the IPB. For some sites at the mouth of the Guadiana River, the bivalves show contamination from other anthropogenic sources, such as leaded boat/aviation fuel and/or leaded paint. Finally, the study demonstrates convincingly the need to consider species-specific variation when using bivalve ALAD activity as a biomarker for Pb. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
DescripciónCompany, R. et al.
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.09.012
issn: 0166-445X
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