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Influence of Growing and Storage Conditions on Bakery Quality of Traditional Maize Varieties under Organic Agriculture

AuthorsRevilla Temiño, Pedro ; Landa, Arsenio; Rodríguez Saavedra, Almudena ; Ordás Pérez, Amando ; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana
Issue Date2012
PublisherCrop Science Society of America
CitationCrop Science 52(2):593-600 (2012)
AbstractMaize (Zea mays L.) used for human consumption is frequently processed following traditional methods with unknown effects. The objectives of this research consist of studying genotypic and environmental effects on grain quality for human consumption and evaluating traditional grain processing methods. Three maize varieties were evaluated for 2 yr in two locations. Populations were significantly different for grain quality while grain yield and pericarp damage were mostly affected by environment. Moisture content varied from 24% for early harvest to 20% for late harvest, pericarp damage from 24 to 19%, and germination from 62 to 84%. Environments explained most of the variation while harvest dates affected mainly grain hardness and germination. In addition, white flint maize grains were processed with a combination of drying, freezing, vacuum, and storage treatments. Drying with warm air after natural drying increased grain quality compared to natural drying alone. Medium term storage increased grain quality but reduced germination. Traditional processing was adequate for adapted varieties and typical uses but additional drying, freezing, or vacuum can be worthwhile depending on grain conditions and final use. To optimize quality, the key issues are appropriate growth cycle and proper harvest time. Furthermore, quality and agronomic performance can be managed independently of each other except for the negative correlation between moisture and milling test.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2011.03.0182
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