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Contributions to the knowledge of a new disease caused by an amoeba in ongrowing Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup 1858)

AuthorsConstenla Matalobos, María
AdvisorPalenzuela, Oswaldo
Solea Senegalensis
Issue DateJan-2013
PublisherUniversidad Autónoma de Barcelona
AbstractA previously undescribed pathological condition is affecting the culture of Solea senegalensis in some farms of the Atlantic coast of Spain. This condition is characterised by the presence of external protuberances in the skin of the affected fish. These lesions correspond to nodules in the muscular tissue showing an abscess-like aspect. Similar lesions were found in kidney, heart, liver and the digestive tract, which leads us to define this pathology as a systemic disease. Histological sections of these nodules revealed the presence of a large core formed mainly of necrotic tissue surrounded with fibroblasts and macrophages. Round-shaped plasmodial organisms were found in the external layer of the nodules and usually inside macrophages or fibroblasts. These organisms were also observed in the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, without causing apparent lesions. This organisms are correspond to a new amoeba species, that belongs to the family Entamoebidae (Phylum Amebozoa, Infraphylum Archamoeba), and we tentatively describe it as a new species in the genus Endolimax, Endolimax piscium n. sp. E. piscium presents round to ovoid trophozoites (<5 μm) with a high degree of intracellular simplification. No mitochondria were observed but mitosome-like organelles were present. In order to establish reliable diagnostic techniques for the recognition of E. piscium, specific in Situ Hybridization (ISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests have been developed and evaluated using the histological examination (a combination of conventional histological technique in muscle samples and ISH in intestine samples) as gold standard to compare them. As a result, all evaluated techniques obtain quite high quality indicators. The ISH technique was the most specific and sensitive and it was useful as a reference confirmatory method in intestine samples, not only to confirm positives but also to discard negatives, diagnosed as doubtful by conventional histology. PCR technique is a fast and reliable routine method, but still needs further optimization of the sampling methodology. The preliminary results of epidemiological screening for the amoebiasis at the different farms suggest that once disease has manifested in a farm, it is quite probable that asymptomatic fish also present parasites within their intestine, although not necessarily presenting lesions. The route that these organisms use to breach through the intestinal barrier to infect other organs and spread systemically throughout the fish, causing serious lesions especially in muscle is still not completely understood. However preliminary studies point out the connective tissue as a preferential site where the parasites are observed so it would have some role of this dissemination, although haematogenous route of dissemination should not be discard. In addition, an experimental infection by cohabitation between healthy and diseased fish was designed whereby horizontal transmission of the parasite was confirmed, although it appears to be slow and with a long prepatent period. E. piscium stages were also detected from water samples from the cohabitating tank, which supports the hypothesis that transmission occurs through water
Publisher version (URL)http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/121637
Appears in Collections:(IATS) Tesis
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