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Religious dissension in al-Andalus: ways of exclusion and inclusion

AuthorsFierro Bello, María Isabel
Issue Date2001
PublisherConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)
CitationAl-Qantara, XXII, 2 (2001), 463-487
Abstract[EN] The Cordoban Ibn Rushd al-Jadd (d. 52011126) explained that faith and infidelity (imán and !a&) are edeeds of the he- (min ayal al-qulüb), so that the infidelity or faith of a person are difficult to establish, because he could be a hypocrite or a conceded apostate (zindiq). There are only two ways to know: a text from God or from the Prophet where it is stated that someone is an infidel, or by perfoming debates or investigations (munapa, mujüdala or mubühatha) in which evidence of infidelity could be uncovered and brought to light. At this point, the hidden infidel or heretic may confess or, on the basis of words or deeds that show him to be an infidel (such as considering licit drinlang wine, or committing murder, fornication, stealing, seizing property unlawfully, worshiping other than God, concuring in blasphemy against the Prophets, or rejecting a chapter of the Qur'in and similar things), he could be brought to trial
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