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Institute/Center: CSIC - Instituto de Historia (IH)

Author: Christin Heamagi (MATLtd), Ana Crespo Solana, Proyecto ForSEAdiscovery (PITN 2013-GA607545) CSIC; Miguel San Claudio Santa Cruz, Archeonauta S.L, Consellería de Cultura, Xunta de Galicia

The picture shows the flap on the starboard side where the protective lining can be seen, based on lead sheets, and the outer shell of oak wood. In the upper part we can see the corresponding frames. The image corresponds to the partially excavated area of the Ribadeo 1 wreck, galleon of the 16th century, sunk in the Ría de Ribadeo (Galicia, Spain) in November 1597. The Mediterranean shipbuilding style stands out, which can be observed in the way of fixing of the external strakes to the frames. In the photo appears Professor Filipe Castro (Texas A & M University) documenting the ship's outer shell woods that stand out for having been built with pieces of oak up to 15 cm thick. The frames that support the lining are appreciated, numbered in the upper part. Its arrangement without the existence of clear between the frames, denotes the solid construction of the galleon. This archaeological site is an important exponent of the Spanish submerged heritage. Thanks to the interdisciplinary research carried out by the ITN project of the Marie Curie program of the European Union ForSEAdiscovery (PITN2013-607545), led by Professor Ana Crespo Solana, Researcher of the CSIC, it has been possible to identify the ship "San Giacomo di Galizia "built in the shipyards of Naples by order of the King of Spain, Felipe II. The ship sailed in commission of service in the Armada of 1596 (“Armada del Socorro de Irlanda”). The wreck was found in the year 2011 by Dr. Miguel San Claudio, during a dredging work. This photograph is one of the thousands of digital reproductions and other materials collected during the excavation campaigns carried out by Archeonauta S.L, the ForSEAdiscovery project and the Xunta de Galicia. Specifically, this photograph was taken by Christine Heumagi, a member of the ForSEAdiscovery diving team and a researcher at Maritime Archeology Ltd, in Southampton. The wreck is located about 4.60 meters deep in a strong tidal area in the Ribadeo estuary. It is very well conserved in its structure, being its length of 32 meters and, being a warship, its hull is covered by a lead lining, to load the artillery and stone throw, and its covers caulked below the waterline. Wood samples were collected in the 2015 campaign by the ForSEAdiscovery Project and an exhaustive historical research was carried out that complements previous knowledge. Open access publication about ForSEAdiscovery at

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Ribadeo 1 Wreck: underwater archaeological excavation of a 16th century Galleon