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Title

Effects of Cd and Pb in sugar beet plants grown in nutrient solution: Induced Fe deficiency and growth inhibition

AuthorsLarbi, Ajmi ; Morales Iribas, Fermín ; Abadía Bayona, Anunciación ; Gogorcena Aoiz, Yolanda ; Lucena, Juan J.; Abadía Bayona, Javier
KeywordsSugar beet
Heavy metal toxicity
Cadmium toxicity
Lead toxicity
Iron deficiency
Issue Date19-Dec-2002
PublisherCSIRO Publishing
CitationFunctional Plant Biology 29 (12): 1453-1464 (2002)
AbstractEffects of Cd and Pb toxicity were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics under growth-chamber-controlled conditions. Chemical speciation calculations were used to estimate the chemical species in equilibrium. Cd, used as chloride salt or chelated to EDTA, decreased fresh and dry mass of both root and shoot, and increased root/shoot ratios. Plants developed few brownish roots with short laterals. Cd decreased N, P, Mg, K, Mn, Cu and Zn uptake, and facilitated Ca uptake. Leaves of plants treated with 10 or 50 μM Cd-EDTA and 10 μM CdCl2 developed symptoms of Fe deficiency. These symptoms included decreased leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid concentrations, increased carotenoid/Chl and Chl a/b ratios, de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments, and decreased photosynthetic rates and PSII efficiency. Plants treated with 50 μM CdCl2, however, had decreased growth but did not show marked leaf Fe-deficiency symptoms. All Cd treatments increased Fe(III)-chelate reductase activity in root tips, although Fe concentrations in shoots were similar to those found in control plants. Pb chelated with EDTA induced visual symptoms only at concentrations of 2 mM. Leaves of Pb-treated plants remained green and their edges were rolled inwards. Pb increased root fresh and dry mass with no changes in shoot mass, therefore increasing the root/shoot ratio. Changes in plant nutrient concentrations with Pb were only minor, although leaf Cu levels approached critical deficiency levels. No symptoms of Fe deficiency were apparent in leaves. Root tips of Pb-treated plants, however, had increased Fe(III)-chelate reductase activities.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP02090
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/99599
DOI10.1071/FP02090
Identifiersdoi: 10.1071/FP02090
issn: 1445-4408
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