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Title

Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

AuthorsLizarbe, Blanca ; Benítez, Ania ; Peláez Brioso, Gerardo A. ; Sánchez-Montañés, Manuel; López-Larrubia, Pilar ; Ballesteros, Paloma ; Cerdán, Sebastián
KeywordsNeuroendocrine signaling
Appetite regulation
Magnetic resonance imaging
Neuroglial compartmentation
Hypothalamus
Issue Date2013
PublisherFrontiers Media
CitationFrontiers in Neuroenergetics 5: 6 (2013)
AbstractWe review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main MRI and MRS strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast (BOLD), and Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) have revealed Mn(2+) accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions, and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field (1)H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. (1)H and (13)C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable.
DescriptionThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnene.2013.00006
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/97290
DOI10.3389/fnene.2013.00006
Identifiersdoi: 10.3389/fnene.2013.00006
issn: 1662-6427
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