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Title

Dinophysis toxins: Causative organisms, distribution and fate in shellfish

AuthorsReguera, B.; Riobó, Pilar ; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz ; Franco, José M. ; Blanco, Juan
KeywordsDinophysis
Diarrhoetic shellfish toxins
Pectenotoxins
Diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning
DSP
Harmful algal blooms
DSP distribution and impacts
Issue Date2014
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationMarine Drugs 12(1): 394-461 (2014)
AbstractSeveral Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated
Description68 páginas, 10 figuras, 1 tabla.-- This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md12010394
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/91829
DOI10.3390/md12010394
ISSN1660-3397
Appears in Collections:(IIM) Artículos
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