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Dagger and needle nematodes infesting grapevine soils in southern Spain: integrative diagnostic and molecular phylogeny

AuthorsGutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Carlos ; Palomares Rius, Juan E. ; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C. ; Landa, Blanca B. ; Castillo, Pablo
Issue Date2011
CitationIOBC/WPRS Bulletin 71: 39-42 (2011)
AbstractDagger and needle nematodes are considered globally one of the 10 most economically important nematode groups. They interact with the p lants by direct damage in feeding process from them or in plant virus transmission. The accurate a nd timely identification of dagger and needle nematodes infecting vineyards is a prerequisite for designing effective management strategies. This is particularly relevant in grapevine fields because o f the diversity of these nematodes and the need for distinction between virus vector and non-virus vect or nematodes. This present study establishes the biodiversity of longidorids found in grapevines at southern Spain, as well as their integrative diagno sis and molecular phylogenetic relationships, using mor phometrical analysis and molecular markers including D2-D3 expansion regions of 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA and ITS1-rRNA. Xiphinema pachtaicum and X. index were the most frequently dagger nematodes found (9 0.8 and 30.3% frequency of infestation, respectively), but other dagger specie s included X. adenohystherum , X. hispidum , X. italiae , X. lupini , X. nuragicum , X. rivesi , and X. turcicum (1.3%, 7.9%, 13.2%, 3.9%, 1.3%, 2.6%, and 1.3% frequency of infestation, respectively). N eedle nematodes were less abundant and diverse including only Longidorus alvegus and L. magnus (2.6% and 11.8% frequency of infestation, respectively). The species identification based on sequencing of rRNA regions and BLAST analysis was congruent with species identification based on morphometrical studies. D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA and ITS1 were most useful for dagger and needle nematode species identification since they showed more variability t han partial 18S rDNA. Results also showed a high level of nematode endemism (such as X. adenohystherum , X. hispidum , X. nuragicum , X. lupini and L. alvegus ) and their phylogenetic grouping suggest a common origin for several of the longidorid species found and the Iberian Peninsula as their po tential centre of origin. Phylogeny showed two major clades well defined and supported including Longidorus and Xiphinema species. However, the grouping of Longidorus and Paralongidorus species with the rest of species is well supported . Nevertheless, tree topology analysis by Shimodaira- Hasegawa test of D2-D3 and partial 18S of our broad sequences did not refute the monophyly of the genus Xiphinema , but the genus Paralongidorus was not accepted as a valid.
Identifiersissn: 1027-3115
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