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dc.contributor.authorNavarro-González, Rafael-
dc.contributor.authorMcKay, Christopher P.-
dc.contributor.authorNna Mvondo, Delphine-
dc.identifier.citationNature 412: 61-64 (2001)en_US
dc.description4 pages, 2 figures.-- PMID: 11452304 [PubMed].en_US
dc.description.abstractNitrogen is an essential element for life and is often the limiting nutrient for terrestrial ecosystems. As most nitrogen is locked in the kinetically stable form, N2, in the Earth's atmosphere, processes that can fix N2 into biologically available forms —such as nitrate and ammonia— control the supply of nitrogen for organisms. On the early Earth, nitrogen is thought to have been fixed abiotically, as nitric oxide formed during lightning discharge. The advent of biological nitrogen fixation suggests that at some point the demand for fixed nitrogen exceeded the supply from abiotic sources, but the timing and causes of the onset of biological nitrogen fixation remain unclear. Here we report an experimental simulation of nitrogen fixation by lightning over a range of Hadean (4.5–3.8 Gyr ago) and Archaean (3.8–2.5 Gyr ago) atmospheric compositions, from predominantly carbon dioxide to predominantly dinitrogen (but always without oxygen). We infer that, as atmospheric CO2 decreased over the Archaean period, the production of nitric oxide from lightning discharge decreased by two orders of magnitude until about 2.2 Gyr. After this time, the rise in oxygen (or methane) concentrations probably initiated other abiotic sources of nitrogen. Although the temporary reduction in nitric oxide production may have lasted for only 100 Myr or less, this was potentially long enough to cause an ecological crisis that triggered the development of biological nitrogen fixation.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by grants from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico and the NASA Astrobiology programme.en_US
dc.format.extent174057 bytes-
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupen_US
dc.subjectNitrogen fixationen_US
dc.subjectNitric oxide productionen_US
dc.subjectAbiotic sourcesen_US
dc.subjectPrimitive atmospheresen_US
dc.subjectHadean perioden_US
dc.subjectArchaean perioden_US
dc.titleA possible nitrogen crisis for Archaean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightningen_US
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer revieweden_US
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