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Binding of the thyroid hormone receptor to a negative element in the basal growth hormone promoter is associated with histone acetylation

AuthorsSánchez-Pacheco, Aurora; Aranda, Ana
Issue Date2003
PublisherAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
CitationJournal of Biological Chemistry 278(41): 39383-39391 (2003)
AbstractNuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) act as ligand-dependent activators, but paradoxically unliganded TRs can increase transcription of promoters containing negative response elements (nTRE), and hormone binding represses this activation. The rat growth hormone (GH) promoter contains a positive TRE and a nTRE. Ligand-dependent negative regulation mediated by the nTRE could play an important physiological role in restricting GH gene expression in non-pituitary cells that express TRs. With chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show here that the nTRE is responsible for binding of TR to the promoter in non-pituitary HeLa cells and that this element also governs transactivation by the unoccupied receptor and repression by triiodothyronine. Occupancy of the promoter by TR is concom. itant with appearance of acetylated histone H3, and triiodothyronine causes release of the receptor as well as disappearance of the acetylated histone from the promoter. Although the nTRE overlaps the TATA box, the receptor does not exclude binding of TATA-binding protein, but could rather facilitate formation of the preinitiation complex. Furthermore, the proximal GH promoter is synergistically stimulated by unliganded TR and TATA-binding protein, whereas the ligand represses this cooperation. Constitutive receptor activity and synergism with TATA-binding protein require binding of corepressors. Furthermore, inhibitors of histone deacetylases enhance promoter activation by the unliganded receptor and reduce triiodothyronine-dependent repression, whereas expression of HDAC1 reverses promoter stimulation. This suggests that partitioning of histone acetylases and deacetylases between the receptors and basal transcription factors could be involved in regulation of the basal GH promoter by TRs.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1074/jbc.M306988200
issn: 0021-9258
e-issn: 1083-351X
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