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Title

High resolution characterization of northwest Mediterranean coastal waters thermal regimes: To better understand responses of benthic communities to climate change

AuthorsBensoussan, Nathaniel; Romano, J. C.; Harmelin, J. G.; Garrabou, Joaquim
KeywordsEffects of climate change
Coastal oceanography
Thermal structure
Thermal regime
Mortality outbreak
Positive temperature anomalies
Mediterranean
France
Spain
Gulf of Lions
Issue Date30-Apr-2010
PublisherAcademic Press
CitationEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 87(3): 431-441 (2010)
AbstractIn the North West Mediterranean (NWM), mass mortality events (MME) of long-lived benthic species that have occurred over the last two decades have been related to regional warming trend. Gaining robust data sets on thermal regimes is critical to assess conditions to which species have adapted, detect extreme events and critically evaluate biological impacts. High resolution temperature (T) time series obtained during 1999-2006 from 5 to 40 m depth at four contrasted sites of the NWM were analyzed: Area Marina Protegida de les Illes Medes (NE Spain), Riou (Marseilles, France), Parc National de Port-Cros (France), and Réserve Naturelle de Scandola (Corsica, France). The seasonal pattern showed winter T around 11-13 °C, and summer T mainly around 22-24 °C near surface to 18-20 °C at depth. Stratification dynamics showed recurrent downwellings (>40 m) at Medes, frequent observation (1/3rd of the summer) of deep and cold upwelled waters at Riou, while Scandola exhibited stable summer stratification and highest suprathermoclinal T. Port-Cros showed an intermediate regime that oscillated between Riou and Scandola depending on the occurrence of northern winds. Data distribution study permitted to identify and to characterize 3 large scale positive anomalies concomitant with the mass mortality outbreaks of summers 1999, 2003 and 2006. The analysis of biological surveys on gorgonian populations showed significant impacts during the 3 years with temperature anomalies. Besides the degree of impact showed inter-annual differences which could be related to different T conditions concomitant to mortality events, from slight increase in T extreme of only 1-2 °C over short duration, to lengthened more classical summer conditions. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that shallow NWM populations of long-lived benthic species are living near their upper thermal thresholds. Given actual trends and projections in NWM, the repetition of new MMEs in the next decades is extremely likely. In such context, the acquisition of dedicated high resolution T series proves to be crucial for increasing our detection, understanding and forecasting abilities
Description11 pages, 8 figures, 3 tables
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.01.008
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/79234
DOI10.1016/j.ecss.2010.01.008
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2010.01.008
issn: 0272-7714
e-issn: 1096-0015
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