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Do wild ungulates allow improved monitoring of flavivirus circulation in Spain?

AuthorsBoadella, Mariana ; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe ; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana Valeria; Höfle, Ursula ; Gortázar, Christian
KeywordsCervus elaphus
Disease sentinel
Eurasian wild boar
Red deer
Sus scrofa
West Nile virus
Wildlife disease
Issue Date2012
PublisherMary Ann Liebert
CitationVector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 12(6): 490-495 (2012)
AbstractAs a response to the need for improved and cost-efficient West Nile virus (WNV) and other flavivirus surveillance tools, we tested 887 juvenile free-living red deer, 742 free-living juvenile wild boar, and 327 farmed deer, to detect temporal variability in exposure to these viruses. Thirty of 742 wild boar samples (4%; 95% CI 2.8,5.7) yielded a positive ELISA result. Antibody-positive individuals had been sampled between 2003 and 2011 in localities from central and southern Spain. No wild boar from the northern half of Spain (n=120) tested positive. Regarding juvenile wild red deer, only two out of 887 samples yielded a positive ELISA result (0.2%; 95% CI 0.1,0.8). These two samples came from the same site and sampling year. The likelihood of detecting contact with WNV or cross-reacting flaviviruses was 18 times higher among juvenile wild boar than among juvenile red deer. ELISA positivity among farmed deer increased 10-fold after local flavivirus outbreaks recorded in the summer and autumn of 2010. This survey demonstrated the potential usefulness of juvenile wild ungulates, particularly wild boar, as suitable flavivirus sentinels in southwestern Europe, and that systematic serum banking of samples from hunter-harvested wildlife or from individual farmed ungulates provides valuable material for retrospective epidemiological surveys and future disease monitoring.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1089/vbz.2011.0843
issn: 1530-3667
Appears in Collections:(IREC) Artículos
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