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Closed Access item P2Y Purinergic Regulation of the Glycine Neurotransmitter Transporters

Authors:Jimenez, Esperanza
Zafra, Francisco
Pérez-Sen, Raquel
Delicado, Esmerilda G.
Miras-Portugal, María Teresa
Aragón, Carmen
López-Corcuera, Beatriz
Keywords:Amino Acid Transport, Membrane Proteins, Neurobiology, Neurochemistry, Oxygen Radicals, Protein Kinase G (PKG), Purinergic Receptor, Transport Amino Acids, Pain Regulation
Issue Date:2011
Publisher:American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Citation:Journal of Biological Chemistry 286 (12): 10712-10724 (2011)
Abstract:The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization.
Publisher version (URL):http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.167056
E-ISSNmetadata.dc.identifier.doi = DOI:1083-351X
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