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The synthesis and accumulation of stearidonic acid in transgenic plants: a novel source of ‘heart-healthy’ omega-3 fatty acids

AuthorsRuiz-López, Noemí ; Haslam, Richard P.; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica ; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga
KeywordsPolyunsaturated fatty acids
Transgenic crop
Issue DateSep-2009
PublisherBlackwell Publishing
CitationPlant Biotechnology Journal 7(7): 704-716 (2009)
AbstractDietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have a proven role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and precursor disease states such as metabolic syndrome. Although most studies have focussed on the predominant omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), recent evidence suggests similar health benefits from their common precursor, stearidonic acid. Stearidonic acid is a Δ6-unsaturated C18 omega-3 fatty acid present in a few plant species (mainly the Boraginaceae and Primulaceae) reflecting the general absence of Δ6-desaturation from higher plants. Using a Δ6-desaturase from Primula vialii, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis and linseed lines accumulating stearidonic acid in their seed lipids. Significantly, the P. vialiiΔ6-desaturase specifically only utilises α-linolenic acid as a substrate, resulting in the accumulation of stearidonic acid but not omega-6 γ-linolenic acid. Detailed lipid analysis revealed the accumulation of stearidonic acid in neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol but an absence from the acyl-CoA pool. In the case of linseed, the achieved levels of stearidonic acid (13.4% of triacylglycerols) are very similar to those found in the sole natural commercial plant source (Echium spp.) or transgenic soybean oil. However, both those latter oils contain γ-linolenic acid, which is not normally present in fish oils and considered undesirable for heart-healthy applications. By contrast, the stearidonic acid-enriched linseed oil is essentially devoid of this fatty acid. Moreover, the overall omega-3/omega-6 ratio for this modified linseed oil is also significantly higher. Thus, this nutritionally enhanced linseed oil may have superior health-beneficial properties.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2009.00436.x
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