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Closed Access item The gamma-chain cytokine/receptor system in fish: More ligands and receptors
Costa, M. M.
Secombes, Christopher J.
|Keywords:||Fish, gC cytokines, gC receptors, Expression, Modulation|
|Citation:||Fish and Shellfish Immunology 31(5): 673-687 (2011)|
|Abstract:||Themammalian gamma-chain (gC) cytokine family consists of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21.
They signal through a receptor complex containing the common gC and a private alpha chain, and in the case of
IL-2 and IL-15 an additional common IL-2/15Rb chain. Deficiency of gC signalling inmammals prevents CD4þ T
cells from developing effector functions and CD8þ T cells from developing immunological memory. Thus gC
cytokines are critical for the generation and peripheral homeostasis of naïve and memory T cells. This review
will give an update on the gC ligands and receptor subunits in fish, and also present some new data on the
cloning and expression of a second gC and two IL-2Rb chains in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In recent
years, aided by the availability of sequenced fish genomes and expressed sequence tag databases, five of the six
mammalian gC cytokines and their cognate receptors have been discovered in fish, with only the IL-9/IL-9R
homologues apparently absent. Paralogues have been discovered in diploid fish and all the receptors
described in the tetraploid rainbowtrout, including gC itself, IL-2Rb, IL-4Ra, IL-13Ra1, IL-13Ra2 and IL-2/15Ra,
have duplicates. As a consequence of the teleost and salmonid whole genome duplications, even more
paralogues may yet be discovered. Some of the paralogues have changes in domain structures and show
differential expression and modulation, suggesting the potential for a change in function. Functional characterisation
of fish gC cytokines is beginning butmademore difficult by the co-existence of somany paralogues of
the ligands and their receptors. Initial functional studies have shown that fish gC cytokines can modulate the
expression of key cytokines (e.g. interferon-g, IL-10 and IL-22) of the adaptive immune response, andmay thus
have promise as adjuvants to improve vaccination efficiency in fish.|
|Description:||15 páginas, 7 tablas, 1 figura|
|Publisher version (URL):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2011.05.016|
|Appears in Collections:||(IIM) Artículos|
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