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Registro de acceso abierto Sustainable semi-intensive polyculture of seabream and sole in earthen ponds
|Autor :||Ferreira, Hugo|
Ramalho Ribeiro, Ana
Arias, Alberto M.
Cunha, Maria Emilia
Valente, Luisa M. P.
Dinis, M. T.
Conceição, L. E. C.
|Fecha de publicación :||sep-2010|
|Editor:||European Aquaculture Society|
|Citación :||Aquaculture Europe 35(3): 17-21 (2010)|
|Resumen:||Earthen ponds are the main production system for seabass and seabream in Portugal
and in Southern Spain, in particular in Cádiz province. Different farms use various
levels of stocking densities and pond sizes, but in general these are semi-intensive
systems covering large areas with ponds ranging from one to several hectares and
production levels from 0.5 to 6 Kg/m3 (mostly below 2 kg/m3) at the end of the
Although seabass and seabream are traditionally the target species produced in such
ponds, there is commonly natural recruitment of wild larvae of other fish species,
including Senegalese sole. Previous attempts at ongrowing sole in ponds with seabass
and seabream as added value gave varied results in terms of number of individuals
recovered, but sole growth rates were promising. Polyculture of seabass and seabream
is already an established practice, with proportions of 4:1 normally used. In seabass
dominated ponds seabream is used to control growth of macroalgae and to clean the
ponds. When seabream production dominates, the carnivorous nature of seabass is
used to control populations of smaller fish which enter the ponds naturally and might
compete for feed. Polyculture of species from different trophic levels has also been
considered an efficient and environmentally sound strategy to minimise the impacts
of aquaculture systems, since an important fraction of dissolved nutrients and organic
matter is recycled within the pond (Buschmann et al. 1996, Sorgeloos 2001, World
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