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Title

Influence of developmental stage pn sensitivity to ammonium nitrate of aquatic stages of amphibians

AuthorsOrtiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E. ; Marco, Adolfo ; Fernández, M. José ; Lizana, Miguel
KeywordsAmphibians
ammonium nitrate
Life-stage sensitivity
development
nitrogen pollution
Issue Date2006
PublisherSETAC (Society)
CitationEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 105–111, 2006
AbstractIn static renewal experiments, we studied how developmental stage influences the effect of ammonium nitrate on embryonic and larval stages of anuran amphibians. The observed lethal effects caused by ammonium nitrate increased with both concentration and duration of exposure. Significant differences were observed in sensitivity to ammonium nitrate as a function of developmental stage in Discoglossus galganoi, Pelobates cultripes, and Bufo calamita. In D. galganoi and P. cultripes, younger individuals displayed greater acute effects from the chemical fertilizer compared with older individuals. For example, 100% of P. cultripes hatchlings died after 4 d of exposure to a nominal concentration of 225.8 mg N-NO3NH4/L, whereas less than 40% of individuals from older larval stages died when exposed to this concentration. A delay of 4 d in the beginning of the exposure to the chemical was enough to cause significant differences in sensitivity. Bufo calamita showed a higher sensitivity in later larval stages after 12 d of exposure. Hyla meridionalis and B. calamita were less sensitive than the other two species. Peak ammonium nitrate concentrations usually occur when amphibians are breeding and, thus, when the most sensitive aquatic stage is in the water. The developmental stage of the test animals should be considered when evaluating the risk of ammonium nitrate to amphibians
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/05-161R.1
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/47666
DOI10.1897/05-161R.1
Appears in Collections:(EBD) Artículos
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