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Title

Melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in pineal, retina, liver, and gut of the goldfish (Carassius): mRNA expression pattern and regulation of daily rhythms by lighting conditions

Other TitlesTranscriptional regulation of Aanat-2 and Hiomt-2 in goldfish
AuthorsVelarde, Elena; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel ; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Sánchez, Elena; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María Jesús
KeywordsArylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase
Transcriptional regulation
Pineal
Retina
Liver
Gut
Fish
Issue DateJul-2010
PublisherMarcel Dekker
CitationChronobiology international 27(6):1178-1201 (2010)
AbstractMelatonin is currently proposed to be synthesized in non-photosensitive organs of vertebrates, besides its well-known sites of synthesis, the pineal gland and the retina. However, very few studies have demonstrated gene expression of MEL synthesizing enzymes in extrapineal and extraretinal locations. In the present study, present study focuses on the circadian expression of the two key enzymes of the melatoninergic pathway, the AANAT and the HIOMT in central and peripheral locations of the goldfish we give report of the full-length cloning of the two enzymes catalyzing the final steps of melatonin biosynthesis, the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and the hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), in a teleosts fish, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Both enzymes showed high similarity with other teleost sequences, corresponding to the goldfish AANAT-2 and HIOMT-2. Two forms of AANATs were widely known to exist in teleosts, but this is the first time that two isoforms of HIOMT are deduced from a phylogenetic analysis. Both enzymes were detected in several peripheral locations, including liver and gut, being present results the first to find HIOMT in non-photosensitive structures of a fish species. No studies exist on transcriptional regulation of the expression of MEL biosynthesis enzymes in non photosensitive structures in fish The daily expression pattern of both genes in pineal gland, retina, liver and gut was investigated using quantitative real time RT-PCR and cosinor analysis. This is the first time that a rhythmic expression of AANAT and HIOMT are found in digestive tissues of a vertebrate species, supporting a functional melatonin synthesis pathway in liver and gut of the goldfish. Besides, the transcriptional regulation of Aanat-2 in pineal and peripheral locations of goldfish maintained under different lighting conditions was investigated expression of gAANAT-2 is analyzed under different lighting conditions including continuous light and darkness, revealing, as expected, light-dependent rhythms in pineal gland and retina, but also in liver. Nevertheless, the persistence in hindgut of these Aanat-2 rhythms in constant conditions suggests that the expression of this transcript is under circadian clock and entrained by non-photic cues. Our results reinforce the existence of melatonin synthesis in gut and liver of the goldfish, while the rhythmic expression profiles reported point to a regulation of both genes in gut and liver by peripheral oscillators entrainable to non-photic cues.
Description24 p., il. y bibliografía
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2010.496911
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/44679
DOI10.3109/07420528.2010.496911
ISSN0742-0528
E-ISSN1525-6073
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