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Mobilization of xanthine oxidase from the gastrointestinal tract in acute pancreatitis

AuthorsGranell, Susana; Bulbena, Oriol ; Genesca, Meritxell; Sastre, Juan; Gelpí, Emili ; Closa, Daniel
Issue Date19-Jan-2004
PublisherBioMed Central
CitationBMC Gastroenterology 2004, 4:1
Abstract[Background] Xanthine oxidoreductase has been proposed to play a role in the development of local and systemic effects of acute pancreatitis. Under physiologic conditions, the enzyme exists mainly as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) but can be converted by proteolytic cleavage to its superoxide-generating form xanthine oxidase (XOD). In addition to its intracellular location XDH/XOD is also associated to the polysaccharide chains of proteoglycans on the external endothelial cell membrane. In the early stages of acute pancreatitis, this enzyme seems to be arising from its mobilization from the gastrointestinal endothelial cell surface. Taking into account the ability of α-amylase to hydrolyze the internal α-1,4 linkages of polysaccharides, we wanted to elucidate the involvement of α-amylase in XDH/XOD mobilization from the gastrointestinal endothelial cell surface and the relevance of the ascitic fluid (AF) as the source of α-amylase in experimental acute pancreatitis.
[Methods] Acute pancreatitis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. In another experimental group 3000 U/Kg α-amylase was i.v. administered. The concentrations of XDH, XOD and α- amylase in plasma and AF and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung have been evaluated. In additional experiments, the effect of peritoneal lavage and the absorption of α-amylase present in the AF by an isolated intestine have been determined.
[Results] Similar increase in XDH+XOD activity in plasma was observed after induction of acute pancreatitis and after i.v. administration of α-amylase. Nevertheless, the conversion from XDH to XOD was only observed in the pancreatitis group. Lung inflammation measured as MPO activity was observed only in the pancreatitis group. In addition peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in α-amylase and XDH+XOD in plasma after induction of pancreatitis. Finally, it was observed that α-amylase is absorbed from the AF by the intestine.
[Conclusions] During the early stages of acute pancreatitis, α-amylase absorbed from AF through the gastrointestinal tract could interfere with the binding of XDH/XOD attached to glycoproteins of the endothelial cells. Proteolytic enzymes convert XDH into its oxidase form promoting an increase in circulating XOD that has been reported to be one of the mechanisms involved in the triggering of the systemic inflammatory process.
DescriptionThis article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-230X/4/1
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