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Title: SCF/β-TrCP promotes glycogen synthase kinase 3-dependent degradation of the Nrf2 transcription factor in a keap1-independent manner
Authors: Rada, Patricia, Rojo, Ana I., Chowdhry, Sudhir, McMahon, Michael, Hayes, John D., Cuadrado, Antonio
Issue Date: 31-Mar-2011
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Abstract: Regulation of transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) involves redox-sensitive proteasomal degradation via the E3 ubiquitin ligase Keap1/Cul3. However, Nrf2 is controlled by other mechanisms that have not yet been elucidated. We now show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) phosphorylates a group of Ser residues in the Neh6 domain of mouse Nrf2 that overlap with an SCF/β-TrCP destruction motif (DSGIS, residues 334 to 338) and promotes its degradation in a Keap1-independent manner. Nrf2 was stabilized by GSK-3 inhibitors in Keap1-null mouse embryo fibroblasts. Similarly, an Nrf2(ΔETGE) mutant, which cannot be degraded via Keap1, accumulated when GSK-3 activity was blocked. Phosphorylation of a Ser cluster in the Neh6 domain of Nrf2 stimulated its degradation because a mutant Nrf2(ΔETGE 6S/6A) protein, lacking these Ser residues, exhibited a longer half-life than Nrf2(ΔETGE). Moreover, Nrf2(ΔETGE 6S/6A) was insensitive to β-TrCP regulation and exhibited lower levels of ubiquitination than Nrf2(ΔETGE). GSK-3β enhanced ubiquitination of Nrf2(ΔETGE) but not that of Nrf2(ΔETGE 6S/6A). The Nrf2(ΔETGE) protein but not Nrf2(ΔETGE 6S/6A) coimmunoprecipitated with β-TrCP, and this association was enhanced by GSK-3β. Our results show for the first time that Nrf2 is targeted by GSK-3 for SCF/β-TrCP-dependent degradation. We propose a "dual degradation" model to describe the regulation of Nrf2 under different pathophysiological conditions.
Description: El pdf del artículo es la versión post-print.
Publisher version (URL): http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01204-10
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/33199
ISSN: 0270-7306
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Citation: Molecular and Cellular Biology 31(6): 1121-1133 (2011)
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