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dc.contributor.authorPacheco-Torres, Jesús-
dc.contributor.authorCalle, Daniel-
dc.contributor.authorLizarbe, Blanca-
dc.contributor.authorNegri, Viviana-
dc.contributor.authorUbide, Carmen-
dc.contributor.authorFayos, Rosa-
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Larrubia, Pilar-
dc.contributor.authorBallesteros, Paloma-
dc.contributor.authorCerdán, Sebastián-
dc.identifier.citationCurrent Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 11(1): 115-130 (2011)es_ES
dc.description.abstractEven though alterations in the microenvironmental properties of tissues underlie the development of the most prevalent and morbid pathologies, they are not directly observable in vivo by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Spectroscopy (MRS) methods. This circumstance has lead to the development of a wide variety of exogenous paramagnetic and diamagnetic MRI and MRS probes able to inform non invasively on microenvironmental variables such as pH, pO(2), ion concentration o even temperature. This review covers the fundamentals of environmental contrast and the current arsenal of endogenous and exogenous MRI and MRS contrast enhancing agents available to visualize it. We begin describing the physicochemical background necessary to understand paramagnetic and diamagnetic contrast enhancement with a special reference to novel magnetization transfer and C-13 hiperpolarization strategies. We describe then the main macrocyclic structures used to support the environmentally sensitive paramagnetic sensors, including CEST and PARACEST pH sensitive probes, temperature probes and enzyme activity or gene expression activatable probes. Finally we address the most commonly used diamagnetic contrast agents including imidazolic derivatives to reveal extracellular pH and tissue pO(2) values by MRS. The potential applications of these agents in mutimodal and molecular imaging approaches are discussed.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported in part by grants: CTQ2006-06505/BQU, CTQ2009-14146-C01/C02, to P.B. and P.L.L., S-BIO/0179/2006 and SAF2008/01381 to SC and EU MEDITRANS Integrated Project NMP4-CT- 2006-02668 to S.C., P.L.L. and P.B. J. P- T, D. C., B.L. and V.N. are predoctoral fellows from the Community of Madrid and CSIC and V.N. and C.U hold contracts from UNED-
dc.publisherBentham Science Publisherses_ES
dc.subjectSaturation-transfer cestes_ES
dc.subjectMRI contrastes_ES
dc.subjectFluorinated 2-nitroimidazolees_ES
dc.subjectTumor hypoxiaes_ES
dc.subjectAcetamide sr-4554es_ES
dc.titleEnvironmentally sensitive paramagnetic and diamagnetic contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopyes_ES
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Educación y Ciencia (España)-
dc.contributor.funderComunidad de Madrid-
dc.contributor.funderUniversidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (España)-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commission-
dc.contributor.funderConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)-
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