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Assessing nitrogen and potassium deficiencies in olive orchards through discriminant analysis of hyperspectral data

AuthorsGómez-Casero, M. Teresa; López Granados, Francisca ; Peña Barragán, José Manuel ; Jurado-Expósito, Montserrat ; García Torres, Luis ; Fernández-Escobar, Ricardo
Issue DateSep-2007
PublisherAmerican Society for Horticultural Science
CitationJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132(5):611–618. 2007.
AbstractHyperspectral reflectance curves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees under different N or K treatments, and the best wavelengths or vegetation indices to discriminate between different N or K applications using discriminant analysis were investigated. Field hyperspectral studies were carried out in two olive orchards located at Cabra and Lucena (southern Spain) for N and K experiments, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. At Cabra, olive trees have been fertilized since 1993, and annual applications of N per tree consisted of 0 kg (N0), 0.5 kg [N1 (normal)], or 1 kg [N2 (high)]. At Lucena, olive trees were fertilized since 1997, with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% K2CO3. Hyperspectral measurements were collected for each N and K treatments using a handheld field spectroradiometer (spectral range, 400–900 nm) in July of both years. To determine the nutritional status, a leaf analysis was carried out in July 2004 and 2005 at both locations. At Cabra, leaf N concentrations under N0 treatment were below the critical threshold, indicating nutritional deficiencies. Reflectance curves corresponding to N1 and N2 showed higher reflectance values in the near-infrared (NIR) plateau than N0 treatments. Wavelengths within the NIR region (from 710–900 nm) were selected in both years for discriminating between N treatments, with an overall accuracy of up to 99.2%. At Lucena, when K was not applied, leaf K content was below the critical threshold, indicating that olive trees were under a nutritional deficiency. Wavelengths from 710 to 890 nm, and the normalized difference vegetation index {NDVI = [(R780 – R670)/(R780 + R670]} were selected for discriminating K treatments with an overall accuracy of up to 94.4%. Classification matrices for cross-validation classified and misclassified cases into the nearest category. The results suggest that the induction ofN orKnutritional deficiency for more than 10 years in olive trees resulted in different leaf nutrient contents, and this consistently affected hyperspectral reflectance curves, mainly in the NIR region. These results are promising and could provide information for further work on the identification of N- or K-deficient olive trees using remote sensing.
Description8 pages; 3 Figures; 3 Tables
Publisher version (URL)http://journal.ashspublications.org/content/vol132/issue5/index.dtl
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