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Open Access item Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

Authors:Muñoz, Pilar M.
Boadella, Mariana
Arnal, Maricruz
Miguel, María J. de
Revilla, Miguel
Martínez, David
Vicente Baños, Joaquín
Acevedo, Pelayo
Oleaga, Álvaro
Ruiz Fons, J. Francisco
Marín, Clara M.
Prieto, José M.
Fuente García, José de la
Barral, Marta
Barberán, Montserrat
Fernández de Luco, Daniel
Blasco, José M.
Gortázar, Christian
Issue Date:5-Mar-2010
Publisher:BioMed Central
Citation:BMC Infectious Diseases 10(46): (2010)
Abstract:[Background] The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates.
[Methods] A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and 4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs.
[Results] Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries) and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs.
[Conclusions] In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for livestock.
Description:43 pages, 3 figures, 5 tables, 1 additional file.-- Provisional PDF.
Publisher version (URL):http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-46
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/10261/22400
ISSN:1471-2334
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