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Diet as a moderator in the association of sedentary behaviors with inflammatory biomarkers among adolescents in the HELENA study

AuthorsArouca, Aline; Santaliestra-Pasías, A. M.; Moreno, Luis A.; Marcos, Ascensión ; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Sjöström, Michael; Gutierrez, Angel; Ferrari, Marika; Huybrechts, Inge; González Gross, Marcela; Forsner, Maria; De Henauw, Stefaan; Michels, Nathalie
Issue Date2019
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationEuropean Journal of Nutrition 58: 2051–2065 (2019)
Abstract[Aim]: To assess if a healthy diet might attenuate the positive sedentary–inflammation relation, whereas an unhealthy diet may increase the effect of sedentary behaviors on inflammatory biomarkers.
[Methods]: In 618 adolescents (13–17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, a set of inflammation markers, and food intake assessed by a self-administered computerized 24 h dietary recall for 2 days. A 9-point Mediterranean diet score and an antioxidant-rich diet z-score were used as dietary indices and tested as moderators. A set of low-grade inflammatory characteristics was used as outcome: several cytokines in an inflammatory ratio (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, TGFβ-1), C-reactive protein, three cell-adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin), three cardiovascular risk markers (GGT, ALT, homocysteine) and three immune cell types (white blood cells, lymphocytes, CD3). Sedentary behaviors were self-reported and analyzed as total screen time. Multiple linear regression analyses tested moderation by diet in the sedentary behaviors–inflammation association adjusted for age, sex, country, adiposity (sum of six skinfolds), parental education, and socio-economic status.
[Results]: Both diet scores, Mediterranean and antioxidant-rich diet, were significant protective moderators in the effect of sedentary behaviors on alanine-transaminase enzyme (P = 0.014; P = 0.027), and on the pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio (P = 0.001; P = 0.004), but not on other inflammatory parameters.
[Conclusion]: A higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet or an antioxidant-rich diet may attenuate the onset of oxidative stress signs associated by sedentary behaviors, whereas a poor diet seems to increase inflammation.
DescriptionHELENA study group.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1764-4
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