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A likely supermassive black hole revealed by Its Einstein radius in Hubble frontier fields images

AuthorsChen, Mandy C.; Broadhurst, T.; Lim, Jeremy; Diego, José María ; Ohyama, Youichi; Ford, Holland; Benítez, Narciso
KeywordsGalaxies: clusters: individual (MACS J1149.5+2223)
Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD
Galaxies: evolution
Galaxies: nuclei
Gravitational lensing: strong
Issue Date2018
PublisherIOP Publishing
CitationAstrophysical Journal 863(3): 135 (2018)
AbstractAt cosmological distances, gravitational lensing can in principle provide direct mass measurements of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Here, we directly estimate the mass of a SMBH in the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) of MACS J1149.5+2223 at z = 0.54 using one of the multiply lensed images of a background spiral galaxy at z = 1.49 projected close to the BCG. A lensed arc is curved toward the BCG center, corresponding to an intrinsically compact region in one of the spiral arms. This arc has a radius of curvature of only ∼0.″6, betraying the presence of a local compact deflector. Its curvature is most simply reproduced by a point-like object with a mass of , similar to SMBH masses in local elliptical galaxies having comparable luminosities. The SMBH is noticeably offset by 4.4 ± 0.3 kpc from the BCG light center, which is plausibly the result of a kick imparted ∼2.0 ×10 years ago during the merger of two SMBHs, placing it just beyond the stellar core. A similar curvature can be produced by replacing the offset SMBH with a compact galaxy having a mass of ∼2 ×10 M within a cutoff radius of <4 kpc, and an unusually large to make it undetectable in the deep Hubble Frontiers Fields image, at or close to the cluster redshift. However, such a lensing galaxy perturbs the adjacent lensed images in an undesirable way.© 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad17b
Identifiersdoi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aad17b
issn: 1538-4357
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