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Carbon black modified screen printed electrodes and magnetic beads for mass production compatible point of site detection of domoic acid in shellfish

AuthorsNelis, Joost L.D.; Migliorelli, Davide; Jafari, Safiye; Generelli, Silvia; Lou-Franco, Javier; Salvador, Juan Pablo ; Marco, María Pilar ; Cao, Cuong; Elliot, Christopher T.; Campbell, Katrina
Issue Date5-Nov-2019
AbstractCarbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) are an optimum platform for point-ofsite electrochemical detection due to their low background currents, wide potential window and chemical inertness. Advancements in screen printing technology has pushed the development of these cost-effective sensors across multiple fields. However, sensitivity of SPEs is suboptimal and improvement of SPE based detection has been accomplished by modifying SPEs with drop-casted nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes or electrodepositioned gold nanoparticles. Unfortunately, these modifications are costly and/or time consuming and impair price-competitive mass production. Moreover, biofunctionalisation of the modified SPEs further complicates mass production/storage and is known to be sensitive to matrix effects due to washing difficulties. These facts may account, at least in part, for why SPE based sensors are currently not commercially available for food contaminant detection. In the present study novel solutions were sought to enable the creation of a cost effective, mass production compatible and sensitive SPE based biosensor with reduced matrix effects. Carbon black (CB), (a largely unexplored material with similar electocatalytic properties as graphene and carbon nanotubes but at least 100X more cost effective) and synthesized gold nanospheres or gold nanostars (which were simply drop-cast onto the SPE thus avoiding lengthy electrodeposition steps) were used for the modification of homemade SPEs. The electrochemical performance of the nanomaterial-SPEs was compared to SPEs which underwent classic (timeconsuming) pre-anodization in phosphate buffer (Pre-SPEs). A magnetic-bead hapten conjugate was used for the development of a competitive immunoassay based on the Enzyme-Linked-Immunomagnetic-Electrochemical (ELIME) format to allow better washing and avoid SPE biofunctionalisation. Finally, optimized nanomaterial-SPEs and pre-SPEs were used for the detection of the regulated marine toxin, domoic acid (DA), in buffer, spiked shellfish matrix and naturally contaminated shellfish. This comparison showed that CB-SPE had the best performance and enables detection of DA with a LOD tenfold lower as Pre-SPE in buffer (4 ng/ml vs. 0.4 ng/ml). Matrix effects remained limited with a LOD in spiked matrix of 0.7 ng/ml and a final LOD of 0.7 mg DA/kg shellfish (well below the EU action level of 20 mg DA/kg shellfish). Moreover, good agreement with HPLC data for DA quantification in contaminated scallops (R2=0.965) was obtained. In summary, this work led to the identification of the largely unexplored carbon-nanomaterial CB as highly interesting for SPE modification and showcased that combining CB and the ELIME format has merit for the development of a mass production compatible, robust, cost effective (material cost < €1.0 per assay) biosensor for in-situ detection of contaminants in a complex matrix.
Appears in Collections:(IQAC) Comunicaciones congresos
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