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AuthorsDaniela Anahí Sánchez-Téllez; Lucía Téllez-Jurado; Luís María Rodríguez-Lorenzo
silica supports
drug delivery
Issue DateOct-2018
PublisherNova Science Publishers
CitationIs your polymer smart enough? better make a hybrid! in How smart are the polymers? Nova Science pubs, Inc, New York, p335 (2018)
SeriesLCCN 2018034395
AbstractThe main advantages of inorganic–organic hybrids are the combination of frequent dissimilar properties of organic and inorganic components in one material and the opportunity to develop an almost unlimited set of new materials with a large spectrum of known and yet unknown properties, because of the many possible combinations. Usually, in composite materials, polymer networks serve as organic matrices and inorganic components (Si, Ti, Sn, Al-based compounds, etc.) serve as fillers dispersed into the polymer network. These composites can be considered within Class I hybrids. In this class, weak bonds between components can be found such as Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonds. Moreover there is Class II hybrids where components are linked by strong chemical bonds such as ionic or ionic-covalent bonds. Two types of reactions can be used to synthesize Class II hybrids: the simultaneous polymerization and the sequential polymerization of organic and inorganic monomers. Different structures can be obtained by altering the polymerization procedure: inorganic phase nanodomains dispersed into the organic matrix; networks with bicontinuous phase structure; networks with ordered inorganic phase; and organic-inorganic block copolymer networks with inorganic junction domains. The chemistry of inorganic-organic network hybrids is mainly developed using hybrid molecular precursors such as organically modified metal-alkoxides or oligomers of general formula R’nSi(OR)4-n or (OR)4-nSi-R”-Si(OR)4-n with n = 1,2,3, respectively. Several stimuli responsive hybrids have been manufactured for different applications: drug delivery systems based on mesoporous silica supports (MSS) have been described responding to physical, chemical or biochemical stimuli; antibacterial hybrids based on photocatalyst reactions; smart biosensing systems based on thin metallic and inorganic nanofilms with natural peptides, glutathione or aminothiol are also being described responding to complex opto-electronic interactions; graphene-based bilayer and multilayer actuators made from graphene and conducting polymers are described responding to chemical variations; and self-healing graphene–polymer hybrids are described responding to near-infrared region (NIR) irradiation. These materials are among the highlighted examples of hybrid smart materials.
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