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Inter-network magnetic interactions in GdMexMn1 xO3 perovskites (Me ¼ transition metal)

AuthorsPeña, Octavio; Antunes, A. B.; Martínez, G.; Gil, Vanesa CSIC ORCID; Moure Jiménez, Carlos CSIC
Issue Date2007
CitationJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 310 (2007) 159–168
AbstractThe gadolinium-based manganite GdMnO3 of perovskite structure has been partially substituted at the manganese site by transition metal elements Me like Cu, Ni and Co, leading to a general formula GdMexMn1 xO3, in which different magnetic entities (e.g., Gd3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Co3+, Mn3+, Mn4+) can coexist, depending on charge equilibrium conditions. For divalent cations such as Cu2+ and Ni2+, the solid solution extends from x(Me) ¼ 0–0.5, with O-type orthorhombic symmetry aoc= p 2ob . When the substituting element is cobalt, the solid solution extends over the whole range [0pxp1], changing from O0-type symmetry c= p 2oaob to O-type for x40.5. In this latter case, the synthesis is performed under oxygen flow, which allows the cobalt ion to take a 3+ oxidation state. Magnetic properties were studied through susceptibility and magnetization measurements. A paramagnetic–ferromagnetic transition occurs at Tc, due to double-exchange interactions between transition metal ions (Mn3+–Mn4+, Ni2+–Mn4+, Co2+–Mn4+), leading to an optimum value at x(Me) ¼ 0.50 (Tc ¼ 145 and 120 K, for GdNi0.5Mn0.5O3 and GdCo0.5Mn0.5O3, respectively). Different situations were identified, among them, a spin reversal in GdNi0.3Mn0.7O3, strong ferromagnetic interactions in GdNi0.5Mn0.5O3, large coercive fields in GdCo0.5Mn0.5O3 or Co3+–Mn4+ antiferromagnetic interactions in GdCo0.9Mn0.1O3. Most of these situations are explained by a phenomenological model of two magnetic sublattices: a transition-metal |Me+Mn| network which orders ferromagnetically at Tc and a gadolinium sublattice, composed of independent Gd3+ ions. These networks are antiferromagnetically coupled through a negative exchange interaction. The local field created by the ferromagnetic |Me+Mn| lattice at the gadolinium site polarizes the Gd moment in a direction opposite to the applied field. When the magnetization of paramagnetic gadolinium, which varies as T 1, gets larger than the ferromagnetic magnetization of the transition metal, which is ‘‘frozen’’ at ToTc, then the total magnetic moment changes its sign, leading to an overall ferrimagnetic state.
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