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dc.contributor.authorKumar, Nishant-
dc.contributor.authorJhala, Yadvendradev V.-
dc.contributor.authorQureshi, Qamar-
dc.contributor.authorGosler, Andrew G.-
dc.contributor.authorSergio, Fabrizio-
dc.identifierdoi: 10.1038/s41598-019-38662-z-
dc.identifierissn: 2045-2322-
dc.identifier.citationScientific Reports 9: 2545 (2019)-
dc.description.abstractGrowing urbanization is increasing human-wildlife interactions, including attacks towards humans by vertebrate predators, an aspect that has received extremely scarce investigation. Here, we examined the ecological, landscape and human factors that may promote human-aggression by raptorial Black kites Milvus migrans in the 16-millions inhabitants megacity of Delhi (India). Physical attacks depended on human activities such as unhygienic waste management, ritual-feeding of kites (mainly operated by Muslims), human density, and presence of a balcony near the nest, suggesting an association between aggression and frequent-close exposure to humans and derived food-rewards. Surprisingly, while more than 100,000 people could be at risk of attack in any given moment, attitudes by local inhabitants were strikingly sympathetic towards the birds, even by injured persons, likely as a result of religious empathy. These results highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors for urban biota and how these may radically differentiate the under-studied cities of developing countries from those of western nations, thus broadening our picture of human-wildlife interactions in urban environments. The rapid sprawling of urban and suburban areas with their associated food-subsidies is likely to increase proximity and exposure of large predators to humans, and vice versa, leading to heightened worldwide conflicts.-
dc.publisherSpringer Nature-
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's version-
dc.titleHuman-attacks by an urban raptor are tied to human subsidies and religious practices-
dc.description.versionPeer Reviewed-
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