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Effects of ibuprofen and carbamazepine on the ion transport system and fatty acid metabolism of temperature conditioned juveniles of Solea senegalensis

AuthorsGonzález-Mira, A.; Torreblanca Amparo; Hontoria, Francisco ; Navarro, Juan Carlos ; Mañanós, Evaristo L. ; Varó, Inmaculada
Na+, K+ -ATPase
Fatty acids
Issue DateFeb-2018
CitationEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety 148: 693-701 (2018)
AbstractThe increasing presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments in the last decades, derived from human and veterinary use, has become an important environmental problem. Previous studies have shown that ibuprofen (IB) and carbamazepine (CBZ) modify physiological and biochemical processes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in a temperature-dependent manner. In other vertebrates, there is evidence that both of these pharmaceuticals interfere with the ‘arachidonic acid (AA) cascade’, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous enzymes that are involved in the osmoregulatory process. The present work aims to study the temperature-dependent effects of these two pharmaceuticals on several biochemical and molecular parameters in Senegalese sole. Regarding osmoregulation, Na+, K+ -ATPase enzyme activity was determined in the gills, kidney and intestine, and the expressions of both Na+, K+ -ATPase 1α-subunit isoforms (ATP1A1a and ATP1A1b) were quantified in gills. Gill prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2) gene expression and fatty acid composition were selected to determine the interference of both pharmaceuticals with the AA cascade. Senegalese sole juveniles, acclimatised at 15 °C or 20 °C, were exposed through intraperitoneal injection to IB (10 mg/kg) and CBZ (1 mg/kg) for 48 h. Non-injected fish (Control) and those injected with the carrier (sunflower oil; S.O.), acclimated at each of the two temperatures, were used for comparison. The results show that IB directly affected the osmoregulatory mechanisms that alter gill and intestine Na+, K+ -ATPase activities. In addition, the copy number of ATP1A1a was higher at 20 °C than at 15 °C, which could be a direct response to the temperature variation. The gene expression of PTGS2 was affected by neither drug administration nor acclimation temperature. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of AA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) percentages revealed a CBZ-derived effect in the fatty acid composition of the gills.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.11.023
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