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Title

Nanoparticle release mechanisms during laser ablation of ceramic tiles

AuthorsSalmatonidis, Apostolos; Viana, Mar; Perez, Noemi; Alastuey, Andrés ; Angurel, Luis A.; Fuente, Germán F. de la; Sanfélix, Vicenta; Monfort, Eliseo
Issue Date2017
Citation5th Iberian Meeting on Aerosol Science and Technology (2017)
AbstractThe ceramic industry is one of the most ancient on the planet. Even though the manipulation of materials to obtain new properties sounds like a modern concept, there is evidence that Co metal nanoparticles (NPs) were unintentionally used in glass matrix since the Neolithic era as pigment. Hence, NPs have been present for centuries in ceramic production processes. In addition to engineered NPs, other types of NPs (referred to as process-generated, or non-engineered NPs) may be detected in workplaces during the manufacturing or processing of ceramic products (e.g. tiles). The reason behind this is that high energy processes such as laser sintering or ablation and plasma spraying have a high potential for NP emission. Laser ablation is widely used in the ceramic industry for surface structuring and decoration of tiles. This work aims to understand the mechanisms controlling NP formation and release into workplace air during ablation of different types of ceramic tiles (conventional and advanced), using different laser setups (n-IR and mid-IR). The measurements took place at laboratory- as well as at pilot-plant-scale, and the process parameters evaluated were laser energy potential, frequency, velocity, and pulse duration. NP characteristics assessed were particle number concentration and size distribution (using SMPS with nano-DMA, DiscMini, and butanol-CPC), particle mass concentration (PM2.5; DustTrak-DRX), and NP morphology and chemical characterization (NPs were collected on TEM grids). Similar measurements took place at the worker's breathing zone, and in indoor background. In total, the combination of 4 types of ceramic tiles and 2 lasers was assessed. We report high NP emissions (from 3.5*104/cm3 to 2.5*106/cm3 on average; TSI-3775 CPC) from all of the materials tested and under all the laser setups, with mean diameters between 35-135 nm (with DiscMini). A strong dependence was observed between NP emissions (as number concentration) and ceramic tile properties (body and glaze composition). In terms of particle mass, emissions depended on a combination of the laser conditions and material characteristics. Emissions in terms of particle mass were markedly lower than in terms of particle number. The developed methodology has allowed the effectiveness of NP mitigation strategies to be evaluated.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado al 5th Iberian Meeting on Aerosol Science and Technology (RiCTA), celebrado en barcelona del 3 al 6 de julio de 2017.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/183586
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Comunicaciones congresos
(ICMA) Comunicaciones congresos
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