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Previous degradation study of two herbicides to simulate their fate in a sandy loam soil: effect of the temperature and the organic amendments

AuthorsMarín Benito, Jesús María ; Carpio, M. José; Sánchez Martín, M. Jesús ; Rodríguez Cruz, M. Sonia
Spent mushroom substrate
Green compost
Issue Date25-Feb-2019
CitationScience of the Total Environment 653: 1301-1310 (2019)
AbstractA laboratory study was designed to assess the following: i) the degradation kinetics of chlorotoluron and flufenacet at two different temperatures, 6 °C and 16 °C, in an unamended agricultural soil and one amended with spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and green compost (GC), and ii) the formation of the main metabolites of both herbicides with potential risk for water pollution over degradation time. The aim was to determine the dependence of these herbicide degradations on temperature (Q10 factor) using kinetic parameters, which is essential information for the later simulation of herbicide environmental fate with FOCUS models. SMS and GC were applied in situ to the natural soil as organic amendments at rates of 140 or 85 t residue ha−1, respectively. Unamended and amended soils were taken from the 0–10 cm topsoil of experimental plots (three replicates/treatment) located on an agricultural farm. Samples of soil + herbicides were incubated at 6 °C or 16 °C under laboratory conditions. The degradation curves of chlorotoluron and flufenacet were fitted to single first-order and first-order multicompartment kinetic models, respectively. The flufenacet degradation, the more hydrophobic herbicide, was slower than that of chlorotoluron in all the treatments. The application of the organic amendments to soil increased the half-lives (DT50) for both herbicides incubated at 6 °C (1.3–1.9 times) and 16 °C (1.4–1.9 times) due to their higher sorption and lower bioavailability for degradation in amended soils. The herbicides recorded a faster degradation at 16 °C than at 6 °C (Q10 = 1.9–2.8) due to the increased microbial biomass and/or activity with temperature. The metabolites desmethyl chlorotoluron, flufenacet ESA and flufenacet OA were detected in all the soil treatments at both incubation temperatures. The determination of Q10 factors in amended soils is very valuable for generating accurate input data for pesticide fate models such as FOCUS in order to improve the evaluation of the leaching of herbicides and their transformation products, which is a relevant goal to maintain the sustainability of agricultural systems.
Description5 tablas, 3 figuras y 39 páginas.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.015
Appears in Collections:(IRNASA) Artículos
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