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Propagation of mature Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) trees by somatic embryogenesis.

AuthorsMartínez, M.T.; San José, M.C.; Vieitez, A. M.; Cernadas,M. J.; Ballester, A.; Corredoira, E.
Keywordsholm oak
leaf explant
shoot apex explant
somatic embryos
Issue Date2017
CitationPlant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (131:321–333 (2017)
AbstractSomatic embryogenesis from in vitro leaf and shoot apex explants excised from axillary shoot cultures established from two mature Quercus ilex trees has been developed. Somatic embryos (SE) were obtained from both explant types and genotypes evaluated, although embryogenic frequencies were influenced by the genotype, auxin concentration, and explant type. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins, supplemented with 500 mg L-1 casein hydrolysate (CH) and different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in combination with 2.22 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). In both genotypes, shoot apex explants were more responsive than leaf explants. The best results were obtained with apex explants of clone Q3 (11%) cultured on medium with 21.48 μM NAA plus 2.22 μM BA. This combination was also effective for initiating SE from leaf explants, although the induction rates were lower (1-3%). Embryogenic lines were maintained by repetitive embryogenesis following culture of nodular embryogenic structures on Schenk and Hildebrand medium without plant growth regulators. Low embryo multiplication rates were obtained when torpedo or early cotyledonary SE were used as initial explant for embryo proliferation, or when glutamine or CH (500 mg L-1) was added to proliferation medium. For germination, cotyledonary-stage SE were isolated and stored at 4ºC for 2 months. After cold storage, SE were cultured on germination medium consisting of Gresshoff and Doy medium, supplemented with 0.44 μM BA and 20 μM silver thiosulphate. Under these conditions, plantlets were regenerated from 21-66.7% of the SE generated for both genotypes.
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