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Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of new cleavable betainate cationic oligomeric surfactants

AuthorsGarcía, M. Teresa; Ribosa, Isabel; Kowalczyk, Iwona; Pakiet, Marta; Brycki, Bogumil
KeywordsDaphnia Magna
Cleavable surfactants
Oligomeric surfactants
Aquatic toxicity
Issue Date1-Mar-2019
CitationJournal of Hazardous Materials (2019)
AbstractNew cleavable oligomeric cationic surfactants containing ester groups susceptible to hydrolysis between the hydrocarbon tails and the hydrophilic moiety have been synthesized and their biodegradability and aquatic toxicity examined. Aerobic biodegradability was evaluated by applying a standard method for ready biodegradability, the CO2 Headspace test. Aquatic toxicity was assessed by means of the acute toxicity test with Daphnia. Cleavable oligomeric cationic surfactants undergo a significant biodegradation extent (31-52%) as compared to dimeric surfactants without ester groups that showed null degradation in previous works. However, they do not attain the threshold of ultimate degradation required (60%) to be classed as easily biodegradable chemicals. On the other hand, the introduction of cleavable groups in the surfactant hydrophobic chains reduces the toxic effects on the microorganisms responsible for degradation observed for conventional alkyl ammonium dimeric surfactants. Acute toxicity values of betainate cationic oligomeric surfactants to Daphnia magna, IC50-48 h, varies from 1.5 to 50 mg/L. Aquatic toxicity of oligomeric cationic surfactants depends on their hydrophobicity and increases regularly with the alkyl chain length. However, whether the surfactant is a dimeric or a trimeric betaine ester does not affect their acute toxicity to crustacean
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.03.005
Appears in Collections:(IQAC) Artículos
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