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Neurodevelopmental deceleration by urban fine particles from different emission sources: A longitudinal observational study

AuthorsBasagana, X.; Esnaola, Mikel; Rivas, Ioar; Amato, Fulvio ; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; López-Vicente, Mónica; Pújol, Jesús A.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Querol, Xavier ; Sunyer, J.
KeywordsAir pollution
Particulate matter
Pollution exposure
Issue DateOct-2016
PublisherDepartment of Health and Human Services (U.S.)
CitationEnvironmental Health Perspectives
AbstractBackground: A few studies have reported associations between traffic-related air pollution exposure at schools and cognitive development. The role of PM components or sources other than traffic on cognitive development has been little explored. Objectives: We aimed to explore the role of PM sources in school air on cognitive development. Methods: A cohort of 2,618 schoolchildren (average age, 8.5 years) belonging to 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain) was followed up for a year. Children completed computerized tests assessing working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness during four visits. Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) was measured during two 1-week campaigns in each school, both outdoors and in the classroom. Source apportionment resulted in nine sources: mineral, organic/textile/chalk, traffic, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, road dust, metallurgy, sea spray, and heavy oil combustion. Differences in cognitive growth trajectories were assessed with mixed models with age-by-source interaction terms. Results: An interquartile range increase in indoor traffic-related PM2.5 was associated with reductions in cognitive growth equivalent to 22% (95% CI: 2%, 42%) of the annual change in working memory, 30% (95% CI: 6%, 54%) of the annual change in superior working memory, and 11% (95% CI: 0%, 22%) of the annual change in the inattentiveness scale. None of the other PM2.5 sources was associated with adverse effects on cognitive development. Conclusions: Traffic was the only source of fine particles associated with a reduction in cognitive development. Reducing air pollution from traffic at primary schools may result in beneficial effects on cognition. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP209
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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