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Title

Toxicity of TiO2, in nanoparticle or bulk form to freshwater and marine microalgae under visible light and UV-A radiation

AuthorsSendra, Marta ; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio ; Yeste, María Pilar; Gatica, José Manuel; Blasco, Julián
KeywordsToxicity
Phytoplankton
TiO2 nanoparticles
Freshwater
Seawater
Issue DateAug-2017
PublisherElsevier
CitationEnvironmental Pollution 227: 39-48 (2017)
AbstractUse of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has become a part of our daily life and the high environmental concentrations predicted to accumulate in aquatic ecosystems are cause for concern. Although TiO2 has only limited reactivity, at the nanoscale level its physico-chemical properties and toxicity are different compared with bulk material. Phytoplankton is a key trophic level in fresh and marine ecosystems, and the toxicity provoked by these nanoparticles can affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Two microalgae species, one freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and the other marine (Phaeodactylum tricornutum), have been selected for testing the toxicity of TiO2 in NP and conventional bulk form and, given its photo-catalytic properties, the effect of UV-A was also checked. Growth inhibition, quantum yield reduction, increase of intracellular ROS production, membrane cell damage and production of exo-polymeric substances (EPS) were selected as variables to measure. TiO2 NPs and bulk TiO2 show a relationship between the size of agglomerates and time in freshwater and saltwater, but not in ultrapure water. Under two treatments, UV-A (6 h per day) and no UV-A exposure, NPs triggered stronger cytotoxic responses than bulk material. TiO2 NPs were also associated with greater production of reactive oxygen species and damage to membrane. However, microalgae exposed to TiO2 NPs and bulk TiO2 under UV-A were found to be more sensitive than in the visible light condition. The marine species (P. tricornutum) was more sensitive than the freshwater species, and higher Ti internalization was measured. Exopolymeric substances (EPS) were released from microalgae in the culture media, in the presence of TiO2 in both forms. This may be a possible defense mechanism by these cells, which would enhance processes of homoagglomeration and settling, and thus reduce bioavailability.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.053
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/173745
DOI10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.053
ISSN0269-7491
E-ISSN1873-6424
Appears in Collections:(ICMAN) Artículos
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