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Lifestyle consequences on the immune system in adolescence

AutorMarcos, Ascensión
Palabras claveLifestyle
Immune system
Fecha de publicación2017
CitaciónInternational Symposium on Immunonutrition (2017)
ResumenAdolescence is a decisive period in human life that is linked to key changes in lifestyle habits and psychological functioning determining nutritional requirements, as well as eating behaviour and physical activity patterns. Inadequate lifestyle habits have been shown to promote inflammatory processes. Both eating disorders and obesity are related to medical complications in early stages of life, leading to the development of diseases and alterations of the metabolism and the immune system. The characteristic behaviour patterns that show up during adolescence may produce energy unbalance and nutritional status disturbances. Physical activity, sleep time, and body composition are critical factors for adolescent’s health-related behaviours. Prospective controlled trials to assess the protective potential of promoting regular and frequent meals in children and their families are highly desirable to strengthen the evidence base for such preventive approaches, which should explore the feasibility and effects of interventions. Data from crosssectional studies have identified several dietary patterns associated with early obesity development, such as meal frequency and distribution, skipping meals, soft drink and fast food consumption, as well as high eating speed. Regular physical activity also seems to offer protection against a wide variety of chronic disease-related risk factors during childhood and adolescence, since it has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory effect. This is the reason why the combination of adequate physical activity together with healthy dietary habits could be helpful in the prevention of the most common nutrition-related alterations, such as eating disorders and obesity, both with potential distortions in bone mineralization and other clinical and metabolic features. There is growing evidence indicating that particularly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), rather than lower-intensity levels, seems to be independently associated with insulin resistance, blood lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory proteins, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents, in a dose-response way. Moreover, the promotion of physical activity together with the reduction of excessive weight during adolescence may reduce exposure to metabolic risk factors in adolescents. Current recommendations for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health biomarkers in adolescents comprise at least 60 min/day of MVPA. On the other hand, sedentary activities are well known to be associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Excessive sedentary time (2/3 of awake hours) has been associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness only in girls and this adverse effect has been shown to be abolished in those girls who meet the recommendations (60 min/day of MVPA). Sleep patterns are also closely linked to several health determinants, Indeed, in apparently healthy adolescents an inverse association has been found between sleep duration and C-reactive protein values, which is an inflammatory marker involved in atherosclerosis, as well as the fact that adolescents who sleep less than 8 h/day show higher adiposity markers, particularly female adolescents. In fact, the most beneficial sleep time range for adolescents is between 8 and 9 hours, which has been related to an anti-inflammatory pattern. Therefore, the study of these lifestyle determinants are essential to implement prevention strategies from the public health perspective.
DescripciónResumen del trabajo presentado al International Symposium on Immunonutrition (10th Anniversary), celebrado en Madrid (España) del 17 al 19 de julio de 2017.
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