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Title

The role of probiotics on the microbiota: Effect on obesity

AuthorsNova, Esther ; Pérez de Heredia, F. ; Gómez Martínez, Sonia ; Marcos, Ascensión
KeywordsProbiotics
Microbiota
Obesity
Weight loss
Issue Date2016
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
CitationNutrition in Clinical Practice 31(3): 387-400 (2016)
AbstractThe microbiota and the human host maintain a symbiotic association. Nowadays, metagenomic analyses are providing valuable knowledge on the diversity and functionality of the gut microbiota. However, with regard to the definition of a >healthy microbiota> and the characterization of the dysbiosis linked to obesity, there is still not a clear answer. Despite this fact, attempts have been made to counteract obesity through probiotic supplementation. A literature search of experimental studies relevant to the topic was performed in PubMed database with the keywords >probiotic> and >obesity> and restricted to those with >Lactobacillus> or >Bifidobacterium> in the title. So far, evidence of an antiobesity effect of different lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been mainly obtained from animal models of dietary-induced obesity. Using these experimental models, a substantial number of studies have reported reductions in weight gain and, in particular, fat tissue mass at different locations following administration of bacteria, as compared with controls. Antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects - including regulation of expression of lipogenic and lipolytic genes in the liver, reduction in liver steatosis, improvement of blood lipid profile and glucose tolerance, decreased endotoxemia, and regulation of inflammatory pathways - are also reported in many of them. The number of human studies focused on probiotic administration for obesity management is still very scarce, and it is too soon to judge their potential efficacy, especially when considering the fact that the actions of probiotics are always strain specific and the individual response varies according to intrinsic factors, the overall composition of diet, and their interactions.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1177/0884533615620350
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/171623
Identifiersdoi: 10.1177/0884533615620350
e-issn: 1941-2452
issn: 0884-5336
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