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Lutein and zeaxanthin supplied by red/orange foods and fruits are more closely associated with macular pigment optical density than those from green vegetables in Spanish subjects

AuthorsEstévez Santiago, Rocío ; Olmedilla Alonso, Begoña ; Beltrán de Miguel, Beatriz; Cuadrado Vives, Carmen
KeywordsMacular pigment optical density
Fruit and vegetables
Dietary intake
Issue Date2016
CitationNutrition Research 36(11): 1210-1221 (2016)
AbstractLutein and zeaxanthin (L + Z) accumulate in the retina. Although vegetables are major contributors to their intake, a stronger association between fruits and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) has been reported. We hypothesized that L + Z intake from fruits would have a stronger association with L + Z status markers (MPOD, serum concentrations) than intake from vegetables or eggs, and that those associations would also differ according to plant foods color. One hundred eight subjects (57 men; age groups, 20-35 and 45-65 years) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. L + Z intake from fruits, vegetables, and eggs was determined using three 24-hour diet recalls and a country-specific carotenoid database. Vegetables were the major contributors (75%) to L + Z intake, followed by eggs (10%) and fruits (4%). Vegetables supplied 86% and 84% of the L and Z intake, respectively, and fruits supplied 3% and 16%. Green foods supplied 78% and 52% of L and Z, respectively, followed by red/orange (9% and 38%) and white/yellow (14% and 9%). Factorial analysis showed associations in older subjects. The explained variance of the first 2 principal components was 54% considering L + Z intake from fruits, vegetables, and eggs, and 55% considering L + Z intake from plant foods grouped by color. Macular pigment optical density is related to L + Z intake from fruits (0.264, P = .003) and is independent of that from vegetables and eggs. It is related to L + Z intake from red/orange foods (0.320, P = .000) and the serum concentrations to that from green foods (0.222, P = .11). Although vegetables and green foods of plant origin are the major contributors to L + Z intake, red/orange foods and fruits have the strongest relationship to MPOD in study participants (45-65 years of age).
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2016.09.007
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.09.007
e-issn: 1879-0739
issn: 0271-5317
Appears in Collections:(ICTAN) Artículos
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