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Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells enhance radiotherapy-induced cell death in tumor and metastatic tumor foci

AuthorsAraujo Farías, V. de; O’Valle, Francisco; Serrano-Sáenz, Santiago; Anderson, Per; Andrés-León, Eduardo; López-Peñalver, Jesús; Tovar, Isabel; Nieto, Ana; Santos, Ana; Martín, Francisco; Expósito, José; Oliver, Francisco Javier; Almodóvar, José M. R. de
KeywordsExperimental radiotherapy
Bystander effect
Abscopal effect
Mesenchymal stem cells
Cell therapy
Metastasis spread
Proteomic analysis
Annexin A1
Melanoma xenograft
Issue Date15-Aug-2018
PublisherBioMed Central
CitationMolecular Cancer 17(1): 122 (2018)
Abstract[Background] We have recently shown that radiotherapy may not only be a successful local and regional treatment but, when combined with MSCs, may also be a novel systemic cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of exosomes derived from irradiated MSCs in the delay of tumor growth and metastasis after treatment with MSC + radiotherapy (RT).
[Methods] We have measured tumor growth and metastasis formation, of subcutaneous human melanoma A375 xenografts on NOD/SCID-gamma mice, and the response of tumors to treatment with radiotherapy (2 Gy), mesenchymal cells (MSC), mesenchymal cells plus radiotherapy, and without any treatment. Using proteomic analysis, we studied the cargo of the exosomes released by the MSC treated with 2 Gy, compared with the cargo of exosomes released by MSC without treatment.
[Results] The tumor cell loss rates found after treatment with the combination of MSC and RT and for exclusive RT, were: 44.4% % and 12,1%, respectively. Concomitant and adjuvant use of RT and MSC, increased the mice surviving time 22,5% in this group, with regard to the group of mice treated with exclusive RT and in a 45,3% respect control group. Moreover, the number of metastatic foci found in the internal organs of the mice treated with MSC + RT was 60% less than the mice group treated with RT alone. We reasoned that the exosome secreted by the MSC, could be implicated in tumor growth delay and metastasis control after treatment.
[Conclusions] Our results show that exosomes derived form MSCs, combined with radiotherapy, are determinant in the enhancement of radiation effects observed in the control of metastatic spread of melanoma cells and suggest that exosome-derived factors could be involved in the bystander, and abscopal effects found after treatment of the tumors with RT plus MSC. Radiotherapy itself may not be systemic, although it might contribute to a systemic effect when used in combination with mesenchymal stem cells owing the ability of irradiated MSCs-derived exosomes to increase the control of tumor growth and metastasis.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1186/s12943-018-0867-0
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