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Diving into apoptosis: liposome-based platform for autoimmune diseases

AuthorsRodríguez-Fernández, Silvia; Pujol-Autonell, Irma; Cano-Sarabia, Mary ; García-Jimeno, Sonia ; Maspoch, Daniel ; Vives-Pi, Marta
Issue Date2016
CitationX Congrés de la Societat Catalana d'Inmunologia (2016)
AbstractAutoimmune diseases are caused by the destruction of the host’s own cells by autoreactive lymphocytes. There are nearly 100 autoimmune diseases, with increasing incidence and affecting around 5% of the population. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to autoimmunity but the triggering factors remain unknown, and current therapies are poorly effective and cause side effects. Therefore, new and safe approaches are required to arrest autoimmunity and allow target tissue regeneration. Based on apoptotic cells’ ability to induce self-tolerance after phagocytosis, liposomes that possess their inherent tolerogenic features have been designed. Liposomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles that constitute a versatile system for modulation of immune responses. The herein reported liposomes are made of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, phosphatidylserine (PS) —the main 'eat me' signal exposed in the membrane of apoptotic cells—, and display a diameter greater than 500 nm to promote phagocytosis. Liposome’s ability to restore self-tolerance was tested in experimental models of autoimmune diseases: the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse for type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced mouse for multiple sclerosis (MS). Liposomes were generated encapsulating disease-specific autoantigens: insulin peptides for T1D and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide for MS. Liposomes were efficiently engulfed by dendritic cells, inducing a tolerogenic phenotype and function. Liposomes were successful at arresting autoimmunity in vivo: T1D and EAE’s incidence was decreased and their onset delayed. Moreover, EAE’s severity was reduced. PS-Liposomes induced an antigen-specific CD4+ FoxP3+ and FoxP3– T cell response in the T1D model, and FoxP3– T lymphocytes correlated with minor clinical signs and hinted at belonging to Type 1 regulatory T cells in the MS model. This work validates PS-liposomes as a powerful tool for the re-establishment of tolerance. Working synergistically, autoantigen-loaded PS-liposomes co-deliver a double signal of tolerance and specificity to arrest autoimmune reactions in an effective and safe manner.
DescriptionResumen del trabajo presentado al X Congrés de la Societat Catalana d'Inmunologia: "Immunoteràpia contra el Càncer", session III: "From Innate to Adaptative Immunity"; celebrado en Barcelona (España) del 17 al 18 de noviembre de 2016.-- et al.
Appears in Collections:(CIN2) Comunicaciones congresos
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