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Arrayable Voltage-Controlled Ring-Oscillator for Direct Time-of-Flight Image Sensors

AutorVornicu, I.; Carmona-Galán, R. ; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel
Palabras clavePhase interpolator
Time-to-digital converter
Pseudo-differential voltage.controlled ring-oscillator
Fecha de publicación2017
EditorInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
CitaciónIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 64: 2821- 2834 (2017)
ResumenDirect time-of-flight (d-ToF) estimation with high frame rate requires the incorporation of a time-to-digital converter (TDC) at pixel level. A feasible approach to a compact implementation of the TDC is to use the multiple phases of a voltage-controlled ring-oscillator (VCRO) for the finest bits. The VCRO becomes central in determining the performance parameters of a d-ToF image sensor. In this paper, we are covering the modeling, design, and measurement of a CMOS pseudo-differential VCRO. The oscillation frequency, the jitter due to mismatches and noise and the power consumption are analytically evaluated. This design has been incorporated into a 64x64-pixel array. It has been fabricated in a 0.18 mu m standard CMOS technology. Occupation area is 28x29 mu m(2) and power consumption is 1.17 mW at 850 MHz. The measured gain of the VCRO is of 477 MHz/V with a frequency tuning range of 53%. Moreover, it features a linearity of 99.4% over a wide range of control frequencies, namely, from 400 to 850 MHz. The phase noise is of -102 dBc/Hz at 2 MHz offset frequency from 850 MHz. The influence of these parameters in the performance of the TDC has been measured. The minimum time bin of the TDC is 147 ps with a rms DNL/INL of 0.13/1.7LSB.
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1109/TCSI.2017.2706324
issn: 1549-8328
Aparece en las colecciones: (IMSE-CNM) Artículos
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