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Autophagy is activated and involved in cell death with participation of cathepsins during stress-induced microspore embryogenesis in barley

AuthorsBárány, Ivett ; Berenguer, Eduardo; Solís, María Teresa ; Pérez-Pérez, Yolanda; Santamaría, María Estrella; Crespo, José L. ; Risueño, María Carmen ; Díaz, Isabel; Testillano, P. S.
Caspase-like activity
Cell death
Cysteine C1A proteases
Microspore embryogenesis
Stress response
Issue Date4-Jan-2018
PublisherOxford University Press
CitationJ. Exp. Bot.69(6):1387-1402 (2018)
AbstractMicrospores are reprogrammed towards embryogenesis by stress. Many microspores die after this stress, limiting the efficiency of microspore embryogenesis. Autophagy is a degradation pathway that plays critical roles in stress response and cell death. In animals, cathepsins have an integral role in autophagy by degrading autophagic material; less is known in plants. Plant cathepsins are papain-like C1A cysteine proteases involved in many physiological processes, including programmed cell death. We have analysed the involvement of autophagy in cell death, in relation to cathepsin activation, during stress-induced microspore embryogenesis in Hordeum vulgare. After stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death increased and autophagy was activated, including HvATG5 and HvATG6 up-regulation and increase of ATG5, ATG8, and autophagosomes. Concomitantly, cathepsin L/F-, B-, and H-like activities were induced, cathepsin-like genes HvPap-1 and HvPap-6 were up-regulated, and HvPap-1, HvPap-6, and HvPap-19 proteins increased and localized in the cytoplasm, resembling autophagy structures. Inhibitors of autophagy and cysteine proteases reduced cell death and promoted embryogenesis. The findings reveal a role for autophagy in stress-induced cell death during microspore embryogenesis, and the participation of cathepsins. Similar patterns of activation, expression, and localization suggest a possible connection between cathepsins and autophagy. The results open up new possibilities to enhance microspore embryogenesis efficiency with autophagy and/or cysteine protease modulators.
Description16 p.-8 fig.-1 tab.-1 tab. supl.- 1 mat. supl.
Publisher version (URL)http://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erx455
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