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Identification and characterization of LysM effectors in Penicillium expansum

AuthorsLevin, Elena; Ballester Frutos, Ana Rosa ; Raphael, Ginat; Feigenberg, Oleg; Liu, Yongsheng; Norelli, John; González-Candelas, Luis ; Mao, Jing; Dardick, Christopher; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir
KeywordsMultiple sequence alignment
Chitin-triggered immunity
Rice blast disease
Pathogenic fungi
Issue Date30-Oct-2017
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 12(10): e0186023 (2017)
AbstractP. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4) were found to be highly expressed during the infection and development of decay of apple fruit. Effect of targeted deletion of the four putative PeLysM effectors on the growth and pathogenicity was studied. Possible interactions of PeLysM with host proteins was investigated using the yeast-two-hybrid system.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186023
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